# Bitwise Operators in C Language ( |, &, ~, <<, >>, ^ Operators )

## Introduction:

In our previous articles, We have discussed the **Logical Operators** and **Conditional operators in C** Language. In today’s article, We are going to look at the Bitwise Operators in C programming Language.

## BitWise Operators in C Language:

**Bitwise Operators** are used for operations on** Individual bits** (Note that it is **bits** not **Bytes**. One Byte contains 8 bits).

So far we have looked at the other operators like Relational, Logical, etc. They all work on the Byte level.

The C language is capable of bit-level operation. It is one of the major advantages of the C language. As we are working at the bit level, We can modify or change the individual bits.

The bit-level operations are very fast in C, So generally Bitwise operators are much faster than the other operations.

The C programming language supports six Bitwise Operators.

- Bitwise OR Operator ( | )
- Bitwise AND Operator (
**&**) - Bitwise one’s complement ( ~ )
- Bitwise Left shift Operator (
**<<**) - Bitwise Right Shift Operator (
**>>**) - Bitwise XOR Operator ( ^ )

## Bitwise OR Operator ( | ) in C Language:

The Bitwise OR Operator is a binary operator and works on two operands. It takes two input values ( Binary sequences of two values ) and performs the **Bitwise OR on each pair of bits in the given sequence.**

The output of bitwise OR operation is True (1) only if any of the input bits is True( 1 )

Bitwise Operator output is False or Zero, When both input bits are Zero(0).

Bitwise Operator is denoted by the **Vertical line** (
| ) in the C programming language.

Here is the truth table of the Bitwise OR operator

#### Truth Table of Bitwise OR Operator ( | ) in C :

Input bit 1 ( Xi ) | Input bit 2 (Yi) | Result ( Xi | Yi ) |
---|---|---|

0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 0 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 1 |

#### Bitwise OR ( | ) Operator Example:

Letβs take X and Y and assume X=10 and Y=20.

Then the bitwise OR of X and Y ( X | Y ) is 30. Look at the following explanation.

*For easy calculations, We are going to take only 8 bits for each number. *

**Bitwise X|Y is: X –> 0000 1010 (10 in Binary) Y –> 0001 0100 (20 in Binary) X|Y –> 0001 1110 (= 30)**

We have looked at the Bitwise OR operator in more detail in the following article, Please have a look at it.

## Bitwise AND ( & ) Operator in C Language:

The Bitwise AND Operator also work on two operands. It takes two input values ( Binary sequences of two values ) and performs the **Bitwise AND on each pair of bits in the given sequence.**

The output of Bitwise AND operation is
True(1) only if **both of the input bits** are
True(1)

Bitwise Operator output is False or Zero, When any of the input bits are Zero(0).

Bitwise Operator is denoted by the **Ampersand** (**&**) symbol in the C programming language.

π’ **Logical AND Operator** is represented with the “**Two-Ampersands ( && )**” symbol, And the **Bitwise AND Operator** is represented with “**One Ampersand (&)**” Symbol

#### Truth Table of Bitwise AND Operator ( & ) :

Input bit 1 ( Xi ) | Input bit 2 (Yi) | Result ( Xi & Yi ) |
---|---|---|

0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 0 | 0 |

1 | 1 | 1 |

#### Bitwise AND ( & ) Operator Example:

Let’s take a couple of numbers X = 8, Y = 7.

Then the bitwise AND of
X and
Y ( **X & Y** ) is
0 (Zero). Please have a look following explanation.

**Bitwise X&Y is: X –> 0000 1000 (8 in Binary) Y –> 0000 0111 (7 in Binary) X&Y –> 0000 0000 (= 0 )**

We have looked at the Bitwise AND Operator in detail in the following article, Please check out for more info.

## Bitwise One’s Complement Operator ( ~ ) in C:

Bitwise One’s Complement operator is a **Unary Operator.** It works on a single operand.

This Bitwise One’s Complement Operator **Inverts the bits of the given number**.

If the bit is
One (1) Then One’s Complement will **invert** the bit and makes it
Zero(0).

Similarly, If the bit is Zero(0), Then one’s complement will change the bit into One(1).

The Bitwise One’s Complement operator is Denoted by the **Tilde** (
~ ) symbol in C programming.

#### Truth Table of Bitwise One’s Complement Operator:

Xi | ~Xi |
---|---|

0 | 1 |

1 | 0 |

#### Example:

Let’s take the number X = 10. Bitwise One’s complement of X ( ~X or ~10) is -11. Look at the below bit-level operation.

**Bitwise ~X or ~10 is: X –> 0000 1010 (10 in Binary) ~X –> 1111 0101 (Binary Equivalent of -11, Here X is signed Integer )**

The bitwise One’s complement of any Signed Integer number ( n) is going to be a Negative n+1 Number ( -(n+1) ). In the above example, Bitwise One’s complement of 10 ( ~10 ) is equal to -(10+1) which is -11.

## Bitwise Left-Shift Operator ( << ) in C:

Bitwise Lefshift operator is a binary operator and requires two operands.

The Bitwise Left-shift Operator is **used to shift or move the bits of number by a specified number of positions in the left direction. **

In the C programming, The bitwise Left-shift operator is denoted by **<< **symbol.

#### Syntax of Left-shift Operator:

1 |
TargetNumber << NoOfPositions |

The bitwise Left shift operator ( **<< **)** **has two operands.

Leftside operand is the **“Number to shift”**, Rightside Operand is the **“Number of positions to shift”**

#### Example – Bitwise Left-shift Operator ( << ):

Let’s take an example number – X = 10. Now perform the bitwise left-shift operation on X.

We are going to left shift one position of X. The **X << 1;** is value
20.

Here is the explanation

**Bitwise X << 1 is: X –> 0000 1010 (Binary Equivalent of 10) X << 1 –> 0001 0100 (Binary Equivalent of 20)**

Whenever we left shift a number ( X) by 1 position, Then the result becomes 2 * X, So we can make any number double by left-shifting the number by one position.

Similarly, If you left-shift any number (
X) by two positions then the result will be **X * 2 ^{2}** or
X * 4

**Ex:** **10 << 2 = 40**

**π’ If we left shift a number(x) by ‘n’ positions, Then the result will be X * 2 ^{n} ( 2 power n ) **

## Bitwise Right Shift Operator ( >> ) in C:

The Bitwise Right-shift operator also is a binary operator and works with two operands.

Bitwise Right-shift Operator is **used to shift or move the bits of number by a specified number of positions in the Right Direction. **

In the C programming, The bitwise Right-shift operator is denoted by **>>** symbol.

#### Syntax of Bitwise Right-shift Operator:

1 |
TargetNumber >> NoOfPositions |

The bitwise Right-shift operator ( **>>** ) have two operands.

Leftside operand is the **“Number to shift”**, Rightside Operand is the **“Number of positions to shift”**

#### Example – Bitwise Right-shift Operator ( >> ) :

Let’s take an example number – X = 20. Now perform the bitwise right-shift operation on X.

We are going to right shift one position of X. The **X >> 1;** is value
10. Look at the following explanation.

**Bitwise X >> 1 is: X –> 0001 0101 (Binary Equivalent of 20) X >> 1 –> 0000 1010 (Binary Equivalent of 10)**

Right-shifting any number ( X) by one position gives us the result as the number/2 ( X/2 ), So we can make any number by half by just right shifting it by one position.

**π’ If we Right shift any number( X ) by ‘n’ positions, Then the result will be X / 2 ^{n} ( 2 power n ) **

## Bitwise XOR Operator ( ^ ) in C Language:

It is a binary operator, Works on two Operands.

Bitwise XOR Operator takes two input values ( Binary sequences of two values ) and performs the **Bitwise XOR on each pair of bits in the given sequence.**

- The Bitwise XOR operator returns True only if
**one of the input is 1**( Other must be**0**) - XOR Return False, If
**both the inputs are the same**.

In the C Language, The Bitwise XOR Operator is denoted by the **Caret** (
^ ) Symbol.

#### Bitwise XOR Operator Truth Table:

Xi | Yi | Xi ^ Yi ( Xi XOR Yi ) |
---|---|---|

0 | 0 | 0 |

1 | 0 | 1 |

0 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 0 |

#### Example on Bitwise XOR operator:

Let’s take two numbers **X = 10** and **Y = 5**, The Bitwise XOR of
X and
Y (
X ^ Y ) is
15.

Here is the explanation

**Bitwise X^Y is: X –> 0000 1010 (Binary Equivalent of 10) Y –> 0000 0101 (Binary Equivalent of 5) X^Y –> 0000 1111 ( X ^ Y = 15 )**

**Few Characteristics of Bitwise Operators in C language :**

- Don’t compare the bitwise operators and Logical Operators. Logical Operator operates on the Byte-Level and The Bitwise Operators operates at the Bit-Level.
- It is important to differentiate between the Bitwise AND (
**&**) Bitwise OR (**|**) operators symbols and Logical AND (**&&**) and Logical OR (**||**) Operators symbols. The bitwise operators symbol only have one character, while the logical operators consists of two characters. - Bitwise Operators only with the Integer data values. We can’t use Bitwise operators on Float data.
- Bitwise operators are faster then normal operators so it’s recommended to use bitwise operators whenever it is possible.

## Tutorials Index :

**Start Here – Step by step tutorials to Learn C programming Online with Example Programs – SillyCodes**

### Related Posts :

**Arithmetic Operators with Examples.****Arithmetic operators priority and it’s Associativity.****Modulus Operator and Hidden Concepts of Modulus Operator.****Precedence Table or Operators Priority Table.****Assignment Operator, Usage, Examples****Increment Operator and Different types of Increment operators Usage with Examples.****Decrement Operator and Different types of Decrement operators with Examples.****Logical or Boolean Operators.**

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